Revision Strategies: HOCs and LOCs (Duke): You have only so much time to revise your paper before you hand it in: what should you focus on? This detailed checklist from the Writing Studio helps you distinguish between higher and lower order concerns.

Getting Feedback (UNC): You've done all you can on your own: now what? This handout suggests reasons and ways to solicit feedback from others on your writing.

Providing Feedback (Duke): Your friend has done all s/he can on her own: now what? This handout suggests reasons and ways to provide feedback to others on their writing.

Reading Aloud (Duke): Reading papers aloud is a very simple but powerful revision strategy. This handout provides tips for using reading aloud to help with revision.

Introspection and Self-Editing (Duke): There are many strategies you can employ on your own during the revision process.  This presentation by Shannon Adams offers advice on the role of self-editing.

Microsoft Word as Editing Partner (Duke): Use Microsoft Word to its full capacity! This handout provides helpful tips for using Word's different features to revise and edit your writing.


Reverse Outlining (Duke): One of the Writing Studio's most frequently recommended methods for evaluating the organization of papers, reverse outlining allows you to take a step back and evaluate "the big picture" of your argument.

Roadmaps (Duke): This handout discusses tips for providing clear signals and signposts to readers as you guide them through your argument.

Organization (UNC): Learn strategies for successfully organizing (and reorganizing) your essays, from reverse outlining, sectioning, and visualization to avoiding common pitfalls such as plot summary, generalization, and competing ideas.

Revising for Style

Improving Your Writing Style (UNC): This handout covers ways to improve your writing style by avoiding wordiness, weak verbs, and "ostentatious erudition' (writing to impress).

Clarity and Conciseness (Duke): This handout outlines practical methods for eliminating unnecessary words and phrases from sentences and choosing the most straightforward verb forms.

Cohesion and Coherence (Duke): Moving from the sentence level to paragraphs, this handout discusses practical ways to get that elusive thing: flow.

Strategies for Improving Sentence Clarity (Purdue): Do you need to improve the clarity of your writing, but don't know where to start? This page focuses on sentence-level concerns, offering ten practical strategies for arranging verbs and nouns for maximum clarity, avoiding unclear pronoun references, and steering clear of passive voice.

Paramedic Method: A Lesson in Writing Concisely (Purdue): Adapted from Richard Lanham's Revising Prose, this short guide offers one method for eliminating unnecessary wordiness.

A Short Guide to Academic Writing Style (Duke): Get some tips on writing for an academic audience.  These strategies will minimize distractions for readers accustomed to academic writing conventions.

Using "I" in Academic Writing (Duke): This handout guides readers through the benefits and pitfalls of using the first-person pronouns I and we in academic writing.

Using Tag Clouds (Duke): Tag clouds can be a helpful anaytical tool for eliminating unnecessary repetition in your writing.